In the Mediterranean strip of Spain and France developed a series of dialects that might be called Occitans , among which would be: Catalan, Valencian, Majorcan, Provencal or Languedo languages.
When the Muslim invasion began, in the year 711, the Visigothic Kingdom comprised the entire Iberian Peninsula and the South of France, known as the Septimania (within the current French Occitania). A territory with 1,000 years of history in common, 700 years within the Roman Empire and another 300 years as a Visigothic Kingdom, should have the same language or very similar dialects.
After all, it is the same Iberian people, the same Roman people, the same Visigothic people. With the same language that remained after the romanization, and that was the origin of the different dialects of this whole area of the Mediterranean of Hispania and Gaul.
Most probably the Balearic Islands were populated by people arriving from the Iberian Peninsula. On clear days, from the peninsular coast you can see the profile of the Balearic Islands, which sail to Ibiza, and from there to the rest of the islands, it is more than possible.
And do not forget that during the last ice age, about 12,000 years ago, the sea level was about 140 meters lower.
The Muslim invasion causes the territorial integrity of the Visigothic Kingdom to be broken.
On the one hand there will be the Septimania and the Marca Hispanica created by Charlemagne, within which are the Catalan Counties. This territory becomes dependent on the Carolingian Empire.
And on the other hand, the area of the North of the Iberian Peninsula, where Christian Hispanics have resisted the Arab invasion.
After centuries of resistance, the lost territory is recovering from the North. And the people who arrive from there will carry a Romance language influenced by Basque, which will be the future Castilian language. While the Mozarabic language (the ancient romance spoken before the Muslim invasion, and which continued to be spoken during the Arab occupation), it is integrated until disappearing into this language brought from the North.
From Peninsular Northeast is also recovering territory, the language they will bring will be the Occitan spoken in the Septimania and the Catalan Counties. This language does not stop being the same one that was spoken in all this zone before the Arab invasion, although several centuries of separation have produced some differences.
Unlike the Kingdom of Castile, the Crown of Aragon does not integrate the new territories of the Balearic Islands or Valencia, but converts them into independent kingdoms only united by the Crown. What will keep them retaining many of their linguistic characteristics.
Balearic Islands in the 9th century is in a complicated situation. It was never part of the Visigoth Kingdom, and at this time it is the most western possession of the Byzantine Empire.The Byzantine presence during the 9th century is proven by lead bulbs found in the Castle of Santueri, in the East of Majorca.
But the Muslim harassment to Byzantium causes the empire to retreat towards the East.
Before this Muslim harassment Baleares receives the aid of Charlemagne, and the islands are linked for more than a century within the Carolingian Empire, along with the Catalan counties and Occitania.
We do not know what the Balearic language was like at that time, since unlike Valencia, no Majorcan jarchas have been found. But more than a century within the Carolingian empire should have had a strong influence on the language spoken on the islands, 3 centuries before the arrival of James I of Aragon.
In the V century, the first phrases written in Occitan language in the South of France began to appear. Which means that this language was already spoken much earlier, and that this same language or very similar dialects were spoken throughout the Mediterranean coast of Hispania and Gaul (France).
Three centuries later, in the VIII century (year 711), the Arabs invaded the Iberian Peninsula, breaking the territorial unity of the Vsigothic Kingdom. .
The vast majority of the population will be native population, it is estimated that only 10% of the inhabitants of the Muslim Hispania are of Arab or North African origin. The vast majority of this population will continue to maintain their mother tongue, while Arabic will be the language of the army, administration and the church, as has happened for so many years in Spain with Spanish and the different regional languages.
At the beginning of the ninth century (year 801), Charlemagne created the Hispanic Mark to stop the Arab invasion of Europe, now the Catalan counties and all Occitania are part of the Carolingian Empire.
In the year 813 the Council of Tours took place, where it was decided that the homilies should be pronounced in the language of the people instead of in Latin, so that everyone could more easily understand what was being said.
While in the 10th century, the Catalan romance is developing as one of the different Occitan dialects, spoken in the South and the French Mediterranean coast. A language that should not be very different from the one used in the entire peninsular Mediterranean coast.
In Valencia we see this romance reflected in the jarchas, which was romance written in Arabic alphabet. The jarchas were verses in romance, written at the end of poems written in Arabic language.
Ibn Lubbun, 11th century
Text in Valencian language